History Of Intellectual Developmental Disabilities-jiqingwuyuetian

HISTORY OF INTELLECTUAL DEVELOPMENTAL DISABILITIES By: Bobby Harris Each child has his or her own set of fingerprints. Children have their own likes and dislikes. A child with a disability must be seen as a child first. (Karten, 2005). Sometimes we need to know where we have been to figure out where we are now, and what the future may hold. The following historical perspectives and quotes shed light on past, present, and future perspectives about disabilities. The hard reality is this. Society in every nation is still infected by the ancient assumption that people with disabilities are less than fully human and therefore, are not fully eligible for the opportunities which are available to other people as a matter of right. (Justin Dart, disability rights activist, 1992, quoted in DEMOS, 2002) Throughout history, people with disabilities have been treated differently from those who conform to or fit societal norms. The following bulleted list outlines some of those unfair treatments that were acceptable by different societies in given time periods: Killed or abandoned in the woods in ancient Greece Kept as jesters for nobility in the Roman Empire courts Experienced acts of infanticide during the Renaissance Drowned and burned during the Spanish Inquisition In 1601, Queen Elizabeths government divided the poor into three groups. The disabled poor were placed in the group labeled helpless poor. Kept in cellars in correctional institutions in early colonial America if family support was not available; people then paid admission to gawk at the oddities. Dehumanization in orphanages and asylums in nineteenth-century Europe Primary care given by the family at home in the early history of the United States instead of children being allowed out in public, e.g., homeschooled and excluded from community activities Institution for Idiots founded in Massachusetts in 1848 Shackled to their beds in U.S. institutions because there was an insufficient number of staff members to care for residents Involuntary sterilization of people with developmental disabilities in the United States, beginning in 1907, to prevent the passing on of inferior traits by eugenicists as defective and an interference with the process of natural selection Gassed, drugged, blood let, and euthanized in Nazi Germany Institutionalized regardless of needs, e.g., person with cerebral palsy was considered mentally retarded Housed in separate institutions throughout the world Not allowed to attend neighborhood schools Aversion techniques used Seclusion policies applied Restraint applied Abuse prevalent (physical, mental, sexual, and financial) Victimized with inhumane treatments Lives devalued Stigmatized as criminals Viewed as sickly Inaccurately tested During World War II, when many jobs were left vacant in the United States, adults with disabilities joined the workforce, showing their competencies, until returning soldiers replaced them in the years following the war. Thankfully, during the 1960s and 1970s, the civil rights movement began and created an even more favorable climate for people with disabilities to continue to enter and succeed in the workforce and beyond. When the inhumane treatment of people with disabilities in institutions in the United States was exposed, this laid down a supportive stage for improving conditions inside and outside of schools for people with disabilities. Eventually, more civil rights and educational laws were passed that consequently changed and expanded services for students and adults with disabilities. This led to the deinstitutionalization of people with disabilities and altered the way society viewed disabilities in general. Group homes became the norm rather than the exception, and more community integration came to be afforded to people with disabilities, with settings that promote independent living. Appropriate education was advocated by U.S. presidents such as Harry Truman, John F. Kennedy, Lyndon Johnson, Ronald Reagan, Gerald Ford, George H. W. Bush, Bill Clinton, and George W. Bush. The table on the next page gives some of these directives, implications, and the beneficial results for people with disabilities in the United States. WHAT IS DEVELOPMENTAL DISABILITIES Developmental disabilities include mental retardation, cerebral palsy, epilepsy, and autism. Also included in the legal definition are people who need the same kinds of support as those who have mental retardation. It does not include people who have only physical, learning, or mental health challenges. CAUSES OF DEVELOPMENTAL DISABILITY Many things can cause a developmental disability, such as: The mother having a serious illness, poor eating habits, or poor health care, or the fact that she smokes, drinks alcohol, or uses drugs during pregnancy. Chemical or chromosomal differences (like Down syndrome) or an inherited condition. A lack of oxygen to the brain, low birth weight, or a difficult birth. A serious accident, abuse, lead poisoning, or extremely poor nutrition. While keeping the above causes in mind, remember that often, the cause is not known. A developmental disability can happen in any family. MAJOR TYPES OF DEVELOPMENTAL DISABILITIES Autism Elaborate on the characteristics of autism in the chart: Autism is a complex developmental disability that typically appears during the first two years of life. The result of a neurological disorder that affects the functioning of the brain, autism and its associate behaviors have been estimated to occur in as many as 1 in 88 births (Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, 2012). Autism is almost five times more prevalent in boys than girls and knows no racial, ethnic, or social boundaries. Family income, lifestyle, and educational levels do not affect the chance of autisms occurrence (Adapted from information on the Autism Society website: .autism-society. org). Epilepsy Elaborate on the characteristics of Epilepsy in the chart: Epilepsy is a neurological condition that makes people susceptible to seizures. A seizure is a change in sensation, awareness, or behavior brought about by a brief surge of electrical activity in the brain. Seizures vary from a momentary disruption of the senses, to short periods of unconsciousness or staring spells, to convulsions. Some people have just one type of seizure. Others have more than one type. Although they look different, all seizures are caused by the same thing: a sudden change in how the cells of the brain send electrical signals to each other. (Adapted from information on the Epilepsy Foundation website: .epilepsyfoundation.org). Some individuals with epilepsy may also have intellectual disability and/or cerebral palsy, and/or autism. Other What does Other mean? A condition is a substantial disability if it is severe enough to be a major impairment of cognitive and/or social functioning (Title 17 54001). Substantially disabling conditions require interdisciplinary planning and coordination of services to help an individual reach their maximum potential. To determine if a person has a substantial disability, an assessment is .pleted to evaluate a wide range of skills, including, at a minimum, .munication skills, learning abilities, self-care, mobility, self-direction, independent living skills and economic self-sufficiency. Many tests are available to assess peoples abilities in these seven areas and in other day-to-day and long-term functions and abilities (Title 17 54001). 相关的主题文章: